Volume 3, Issue 1 (Autumn 2017 -- 2017)                   hdq 2017, 3(1): 31-38 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


1- Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , saei.azam@yahoo.com
2- Department of Military Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Medical Surgery, Faculty of Nursing, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract:   (1256 Views)

Background: Human factors have the most significant effects on the occurrence of traffic accidents among the three factors of human, road, and vehicle. The driver is a significant traffic safety concern. Interventions that enhance driver’s safety are required. Risky behaviors of drivers on the road influence physical healthy and personality. The aim of this study is to report the protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study that set out to determine the drivers’ traffic factors, the associated factors and exploring the perception of drivers about the risky traffic factors on the road. The ultimate purpose of the study is to design a preventive and cultural based strategy to promote driver’s safety.
Materials and Methods: This is a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. The study has two sequential strands. The follow-up explanation model has used to develop the quantitative results by gathering qualitative data from participants who could assist in elucidating the results correctly. During the first strand (a quantitative phase) and a population-based cross-sectional survey of a sample of drivers of all ages and level of experiences will be carried out using the proportional random sampling method, in Tehran, Iran. Data will be collected by questionnaires involving items on socio-demographic information, items on measuring health (Drivers Medical Questionnaire), and questions on five-factor Personality (NEO-FFI), drivers risky behaviors (Manchester driving behavior questionnaire). Questionnaires will be completed through a face-to-face interview. In the second strand, a qualitative study will be conducted. A purposeful sampling strategy will be used, and participants who can help to explain the quantitative findings will be selected. Individual fully developed interviews will predominate data collection in the qualitative strand the. A qualitative content analysis approach will be undertaken to create an itemized understanding of the traffic-risky behaviors among drivers of all ages and level of experiences.
Conclusion: The findings of this explanatory mixed methods study will provide information on traffic-risky behaviors by all drivers. The results will be implemented to design a cultural based strategy, and intervention programs are to be designed to promote driver’s health in the community.

Full-Text [PDF 473 kb]   (306 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (268 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/04/30 | Accepted: 2017/08/3 | Published: 2017/10/1

References
1. World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2013: Supporting a decade of action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
2. World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety: Time for action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
3. Leandro M. Young drivers and speed selection: A model guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2012; 15(3):219–32. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2011.12.011 [DOI:10.1016/j.trf.2011.12.011]
4. World Health Organization. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
5. Leproust S, Lagarde E, Salmi LR. Systematic screening for unsafe driving due to medical conditions: Still debatable. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-27 [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-8-27]
6. Moafian G, Aghabeigi MR, Hoseinzadeh A, Lankarani KB, Sarikhani Y, Heydari ST. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: Analysis of driver related factors. Chinese Journal of Traumatology. 2013; 16(3):140-4. [PMID]
7. Ardalan A, Masoomi GR, Goya MM, Sarvar MR, Haddadi M, Miadfar J, et al. Road traffic injuries: A challenge for Iran's health system. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2009; 38(1):98-101.
8. Rezaei S, Arab M, Karami Matin B, Akbari Sari A. Extent, consequences and economic burden of road traffic crashes in Iran. Journal of Injury and Violence Research. 2014; 6(2). doi: 10.5249/jivr.v6i2.191 [DOI:10.5249/jivr.v6i2.191]
9. Karacasu M, Er A. An analysis on distribution of traffic faults in accidents, based on driver's age and gender: Eskisehir case. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 20:776-85. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.08.086 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.08.086]
10. Shappell SA, Wiegmann DA. Human factors investigation and analysis of accidents and incidents. Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. 2013; 440–9. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-382165-2.00146-x [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-382165-2.00146-X]
11. Sagberg F. Driver health and crash involvement: A case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2006; 38(1):28–34. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2005.06.018 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2005.06.018]
12. Classen S, Crizzle AM, Winter SM, Silver W, Eisenschenk S. Evidence-based review on epilepsy and driving. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2012; 23(2):103–12. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.11.015 [DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.11.015]
13. Borowsky A, Shinar D, Oron Gilad T. Age, skill, and hazard perception in driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2010; 42(4):1240–9. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.02.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2010.02.001]
14. Clarke DD, Ward P, Bartle C, Truman W. Older drivers' road traffic crashes in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2010; 42(4):1018–24. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.005]
15. Duke J, Guest M, Boggess M. Age related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: A literature review. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2010; 42(2):364–71. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.09.026 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2009.09.026]
16. Jayatilleke AU, Nakahara S, Dharmaratne SD, Jayatilleke AC, Poudel KC, Jimba M. Working conditions of bus drivers in the private sector and bus crashes in Kandy district, Sri Lanka: A case control study. Injury Prevention. 2009; 15(2):80–6. doi: 10.1136/ip.2008.018937 [DOI:10.1136/ip.2008.018937]
17. Anderson JE, Govada M, Steffen TK, Thorne CP, Varvarigou V, Kales SN, et al. Obesity is associated with the future risk of heavy truck crashes among newly recruited commercial drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2012; 49:378–84. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2012.02.018 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2012.02.018]
18. Rodenstein D. Sleep apnea: Traffic and occupational accidents & ndash; Individual risks, socioeconomic and legal implications. Respiration. 2009; 78(3):241–8. doi: 10.1159/000222811 [DOI:10.1159/000222811]
19. Hilton MF, Staddon Z, Sheridan J, Whiteford HA. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2009; 41(3):453–61. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.01.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2009.01.012]
20. Izadi N, Malek M, Aminian O, Saraei M. Medical risk factors of diabetes mellitus among professional drivers. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2013; 12(1):23. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-12-23 [DOI:10.1186/2251-6581-12-23]
21. Graveling AJ, Frier BM. Driving and diabetes: Problems, licensing restrictions and recommendations for safe driving. Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2015; 1(1). doi: 10.1186/s40842-015-0007-3 [DOI:10.1186/s40842-015-0007-3]
22. Roth GA, Forouzanfar MH, Moran AE, Barber R, Nguyen G, Feigin VL, et al. Demographic and epidemiologic drivers of global cardiovascular mortality. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015; 372(14):1333–41. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1406656 [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1406656]
23. Li G, Brady JE, Chen Q. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2013; 60:205–10. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001]
24. Ulleberg P, Rundmo T. Personality, attitudes and risk perception as predictors of risky driving behaviour among young drivers. Safety Science. 2003; 41(5):427–43. doi: 10.1016/s0925-7535(01)00077-7 [DOI:10.1016/S0925-7535(01)00077-7]
25. Ehsani JP, Li K, Simons Morton BG, Tree McGrath CF, Perlus JG, O'Brien F, et al. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk. Journal of Safety Research. 2015; 54:83e29-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2015.06.015 [DOI:10.1016/j.jsr.2015.06.015]
26. Yang J, Du F, Qu W, Gong Z, Sun X. Effects of personality on risky driving behavior and accident involvement for chinese drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2013; 14(6):565–71. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2012.748903 [DOI:10.1080/15389588.2012.748903]
27. Reason J, Manstead A, Stradling S, Baxter J, Campbell K. Errors and violations on the roads: A real distinction. Ergonomics. 1990; 33(10-11):1315–32. doi: 10.1080/00140139008925335 [DOI:10.1080/00140139008925335]
28. Özkan T, Lajunen T, Summala H. Driver behaviour questionnaire: A follow-up study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2006; 38(2):386–95. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2005.10.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2005.10.012]
29. Aberg L, Rimmo PA. Dimensions of aberrant driver behaviour. Ergonomics. 1998; 41(1):39–56. doi: 10.1080/001401398187314 [DOI:10.1080/001401398187314]
30. Baheiraei A, Mirghafourvand M, Mohammadi E, Nedjat S, Charandabi SMA, Rajabi F, et al. Health promoting behaviors and social support of women of reproductive age, and strategies for advancing their health: Protocol for a mixed methods study. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-191 [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-191]
31. Creswell JW, Klassen AC, Plano Clark VL, Smith KC. Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences. Bethesda (Maryland): National Institutes of Health; 2011. [DOI:10.1037/e566732013-001]
32. Drivers Medical Group. At a Glance: Guide to the current medical standards of fitness to drive. Swansea: Drivers Medical Group; 2010.
33. Teddlie C, Tashakkori A. Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. California: Sage Publication; 2009.
34. Meuser TM, Berg Weger M, Niewoehner PM, Harmon AC, Kuenzie JC, Carr DB, et al. Physician input and licensing of at-risk drivers: A review of all inclusive medical evaluation forms in the US and Canada. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2012; 46:8–17. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2011.12.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2011.12.009]